Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine April 2017 - 61
DOI. No. 10.1109/MAES.2017.174002
Errata: : SENSE AND AVOID FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
1. FASANO, G., ACCADO, D., MOCCIA, A., MORONEY, D. SENSE AND AVOID FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, IEEE
AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS MAGAZINE TUTORIAL X, 31 (11) PART II OF II. PAGES 82-110.
DOI. NO. 10.1109/MAES.2016.160116.
The online version of the tutorial article "Sense and Avoid for Unmanned Aircraft Systems," by Giancarmine Fasano, Domenico Accado,
Antonio Moccia, University of Naples, "Federico II", Naples, Italy, and David Moroney, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA, USA, in
Tutorial X, Part II of the IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, Volume 31, issue 11, should be "Sense and Avoid for Unmanned
Aircraft Systems," by Giancarmine Fasano, Domenico Accardo, Antonio Moccia, University of Naples, "Federico II", Naples, Italy, and
David Maroney, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA, USA. It is correct in the printed version.
page 92 wasAircraft
formatted and should appear as shown below.
Properties of Noncooperative Sensing Sources
(requires electronic interrogation)
(no electronic interrogation)
* Direct Energy
* Visible light
Bistatic/Multistatic RADAR (using signalsof-opportunity-cell, FM radio)
Bistatic/Multistatic RADAR (known signal
Sense and Avoid
for Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Sense and Avoid for Unmanned Aircraft Systems
direction is named as Lφ, then obstacle angular
can beas Lφ, then obstacle angular dimension can be
In the following, an overview of basic sensor(44)
is called the photoelectric effect . Signal amplification must be
Thirdly, Equation (45) on page 106 of the same article was incorrect in the online version of the article and is correct as it appears
time derivative, wave.
we getJust after emitting
Taking the time
getdevelopment of an airborne anticollision radar.
a pulse, the radar switches the antenna from the transmitter to the
Terms Measured by the Sensor and Sensor Measurement Perfor(45)
receiver by means of a controlled switch that is called a diplexer.
mance: A pulsed radar is capable to determine the range by esThe pulses hit the object to be detected and a certain amount of entimating the round-trip distance travelled by a pulse that moves at
ergy is backscattered to the radar antenna depending on the reflecand thus
the speed of light c, since it is carried by an electromagnetic wave
of the apologizes
to bebetween the online and the print versions of Tutorial X.
generated by the transmitter. The resulting measured range R is
detected by the radar, the presence of the object can be recognized
and the relative range can be measured by estimating the travel
time. The radar head can be rotated mechanically or electronically
, as approximation
The approximation error nullifies for zero dCPAThe
error nullifies for zero dCPA, as before.
the AND AVOID FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
SYSTEMS, IEEE AEROSPACE AND
If the obstacle area within images is measured
differentarea within images is measured at different
adELECTRONIC SYSTEMS MAGAZINE TUTORIAL X, 31 (11) PART II OF II. PAGES 82-110.
times, the derivative can be estimated numerically
to an can be estimated numerically leading to an
of the SAA application, such as the following.
estimate of tCPA. Indeed, applicability of thisestimate
practi. Indeed, applicability of this approach in practical cases
small changes in
1. It can estimate
of the by
when the in
trx is in
typiat relatively large ranges, when obstacles typiand angular
rates.at relatively large ranges, IEEE
trx is the time when the pulse is transmitted.
cally span a few pixels and their appearance iscally
pixels and their appearance is strongly influenced
2. The reliability of detection and the initial detection distance can
by the environmental conditions  and attitude
in the design