Avionics News May 2019 - 55

voltages too low to forward bias the
junction. In those cases, the meter
will have a special diode check mode.
When testing outside a circuit, a properly working transistor will measure
like two diodes tied together anode to
anode (NPN) or cathode to cathode
(PNP). A meter should forward and
reverse bias the junctions accordingly.
A meter connected from the emitter
to the collector should read open.
Transistors designed to carry large
loads are constructed with multiple
junctions in parallel. If a transistor has
been stressed due to a short circuit
or other overload, then it should be
replaced. The stress event may ruin
some, but not all, of the parallel junctions. In these cases, the transistor will
test well, but when working under
load, will be significantly less reliable
and is likely to fail after a short time.
This article merely scratches the
surface of bipolar transistor knowledge. Shockley was looking for a way
to control current flow using a static
field, inside a solid, which would
be similar to the way electrons were
controlled inside a vacuum tube. Current flow along the surfaces of the
materials with which they were experimenting kept getting in the way of
their progress. Bardeen and Brattain
decided, quite literally, to go with the
flow to develop the bipolar transistor.
Within three years of the invention of the bipolar transistor, Jun-ichi
Nishizawa and Y. Watanabe developed the first version of the junction
field-effect transistor. This was the
device Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain were hoping to produce. In 1959,
Dawon Kahng and Martin Atalla invented the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, which accelerated the revolution in electronics.
We will return to bipolar transistors in a future edition and explore
FETs after we introduce alternating
current. q
avionics news

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may

2019

55


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Avionics News May 2019

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Avionics News May 2019 - Intro
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Avionics News May 2019 - Cover2
Avionics News May 2019 - 1
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Avionics News May 2019 - Cover3
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