Avionics News December 2020 - 64

THEORY & PRACTICE
Continued from page 63

To take a bit of the sting out of spending money on new
equipment, the FAA offered ADS-B In. This is a system that
provides users of ADS-B Out data, which prior to the rule
change was only available by subscribing to a service provider.
Both 1090ES transponders and 978 UATs are able to receive
ADS-B In, which consists of traffic information called TISB, and flight information called FIS-B. Pilots using moving
map displays can see TIS-B data on their screens, which gives
them greater awareness of nearby traffic. FIS-B provides pilots
with weather information, notices to airmen, pilot reports of
turbulence or weather, and information about temporary flight
restrictions or special use airspace.
You may be wondering about the other ADS. What
most people know generally as ADS-B In is officially
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Rebroadcast, or ADS-R.
All the data collected from the various sources mentioned
previously gets broadcast out to the 1090ES transponders
and the 978 UATs. The only operators left out of this data
are those without ADS-B, who in one sense are flying blind.
Everything described so far works between aircraft
and ground stations or in aircraft equipped with collision
avoidance systems, aircraft to aircraft. For aircraft far from
air traffic control sites such as over the ocean, there is
another ADS called ADS-C. The " C " in ADS-C stands for
contract. A contract is the link between the ADS system
in the aircraft through a satellite communication system to
the air traffic controller.

Not only did we all need to learn about the proper
setting of the unique identifier code for ADS-B equipment,
but we also need to learn some (new to many of us)
terms about navigation quality. The link between the
1090ES or the 978 UAT must be accurate and reliable. To
define accuracy and reliability, there are four parameters
that must be monitored. Each quality indicator uses
a numbered scale to represent reliability or accuracy.
Technicians will need to learn about:
*	 Navigation integrity category, which reports a
number that indicates the radius to which position
errors are contained. For example, an NIC of 11
tells us errors are contained to be within a 7.5
meter circle. In contrast, an NIC of 0 tells us the
errors could be more than 20 nautical miles.
*	 There are two types of NIC, one for position and
one for velocity. NICP for position must be a level
10 for ADS-B and 11 for precision approaches.
NICV, for velocity ranges from 0 for unknown
speed to 4 for speed accuracy of less than 0.3
meters per second.
*	 System design assurance indicates the probability
an undetected fault will cause false information to
be transmitted. The numbers range from 3, which
is less than 1 per 10 million flight hours, down to
0, which is unknown.
*	 Like SDA, system integrity level also calculates
odds. In this case, SIL is calculating the chances of
exceeding the NIC radius and has the same number
scale as SDA.
A few years ago,
an engineer shared
his pessimistic view
that a large portion
of ADS systems
were not installed
correctly. I'm not sure
the situation was as
bad as he thought,
but I should note the
FAA began cracking
down on improperly
configured ADS-B
address codes in 2018.
This could be due, in
part, to the learning
curve experienced by
everyone involved in
the implementation of
the new system. q

Traffic Information Services-Broadcast is part of ADS-R for both 978 UAT and 1090 ES equipped aircraft.

64

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Avionics News December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Avionics News December 2020

No label
Avionics News December 2020 - Intro
Avionics News December 2020 - No label
Avionics News December 2020 - Cover2
Avionics News December 2020 - 1
Avionics News December 2020 - 2
Avionics News December 2020 - 3
Avionics News December 2020 - 4
Avionics News December 2020 - 5
Avionics News December 2020 - 6
Avionics News December 2020 - 7
Avionics News December 2020 - 8
Avionics News December 2020 - 9
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Avionics News December 2020 - 11
Avionics News December 2020 - 12
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Avionics News December 2020 - 15
Avionics News December 2020 - 16
Avionics News December 2020 - 17
Avionics News December 2020 - 18
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Avionics News December 2020 - 20
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Avionics News December 2020 - 28
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Avionics News December 2020 - 30
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Avionics News December 2020 - 70
Avionics News December 2020 - 71
Avionics News December 2020 - 72
Avionics News December 2020 - Cover3
Avionics News December 2020 - Cover4
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