Avionics News May 2020 - 23

In the Caribbean
A broad swath of airspace encompassing the Caribbean
islands and Central America lacks much in the way of
air-traffic surveillance for much of the ocean areas. For
that reason, surveillance authorities are conducting an
operational evaluation of Aireon's satellite-originated
ADS-B in the Caribbean. The area was chosen, according
to authorities, because of reliability problems with the
surveillance radar on Grand Turk.
The outcome of this evaluation will feed research
into using satellite-based ADS-B in oceanic airspace
in concert with other nations in Europe as well as the
U.S., where the FAA's centers in Miami, New York, Los
Angeles and San Francisco have limited range over the
ocean. Any decision to deploy satellite-based ADS-B
coverage to expand oceanic coverage will likely entail
another rulemaking seeking another equipment mandate -
one requiring diversity in aircraft ADS-B systems.
Europe
This is yet another region that set a date for ADS-B
compliance ... then changed it. Now, operators have until
June 7, 2020, to meet the European ADS-B Out mandate,
about six months behind the U.S. deadline. But the
European mandate is far less universal than the U.S. rule.
Europe's mandate for ADS-B applies only to aircraft
with a maximum takeoff weight of more than 12,566
pounds - or 5,700 kilograms - or with a maximum-cruise
true airspeed capability exceeding 250 knots and which
received its individual certificate of airworthiness before
June 8, 2016. Later aircraft were already required to be
delivered with ADS-B installed.
According to a report from the Single European ATM
Research Agency Development Manager, regulators
are working on an exemption policy to accommodate
operators with aircraft that aren't yet ADS-B equipped
by the deadline because of financial or technological
configuration issues.
Elsewhere around the globe
In January, the flight-planning firm OpsGroup
published an updated list of ADS-B equipment and
operational mandates, both existing and upcoming.
South Africa set its deadline on April 1 for aircraft
operating under IFR rules. The same starting date and
equipment requirements will apply to IFR or VFR aircraft
operating in Class A, B, C, and E airspace.
New Zealand is expected to apply a proposal making
ADS-B mandatory for all aircraft in controlled airspace
below FL245 starting Dec. 31, 2021. The nation also
published a detailed description of the requirements for

operations, performance, and equipment. Learn more at
aviation.govt.nz/airspace-and-aerodromes/new-southernsky/ads-b/.
Saudi Arabia postponed its ADS-B requirement in
Class A and B airspace to Jan. 1, 2021, from Jan. 1, 2020,
according to a recent NOTAM.
Sri Lanka has yet to mandate ADS-B requirements,
though it started a trial program in 2014.
Diversity, ADS-B style
Last year, a new company, Aireon, completed
the launch of satellites for its space-based ADS-B
surveillance network, a system with the promise to
extend air-traffic surveillance and management to
virtually every spot on the planet. The potential is
enormous, promising coverage that could bring an end
to the problem of aircraft disappearing while flying over
vast expanses of ocean.
The airline industry experienced this with Air France
Flight 447, an Airbus A330 en route to Paris from Rio de
Janeiro on June 1, 2009. The jet's main wreckage took
two years to find deep in the South Atlantic.
Almost five years later, on March 8, 2014, history
repeated itself when Malaysia Airlines Flight 370
vanished somewhere over the ocean southwest of the
islands during a flight to Beijing from Kuala Lumpur. Its
exact location remains a mystery, even after months of
scouring the Indian Ocean.
The two accidents heightened pressure to require
improvements in the emergency beacons on airliners to
correct this surveillance problem. The FAA has indicated
satellite-based ADS-B may be the next step in ADS-B's
evolution, enabling surveillance across the globe. The
FAA is taking a phased approach to address operational,
safety and technical aspects in its evaluation of the
technology.
So far, research has found that aircraft with
transponder antennae only on their belly suffer from
signal-strength issues that impact the reliability of the
satellites' reception. The known solution: transponderantenna diversity - a second transponder antenna
mounted on top of the fuselage.
Some solutions exist, but most solutions aren't built
to support diversity, making a transponder replacement
necessary - but only for air traffic flying where satellite
surveillance would be mandated: over oceans and vast
expanses of land with no ground-based stations to serve
as ADS-B receivers.
Currently, general aviation only has a few diversity
solutions for lighter aircraft. Avionics stacks for many Part
25 business jets already offer diversity transponders. q
avionics news

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may

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http://aviation.govt.nz/airspace-and-aerodromes/new-southern-sky/ads-b/ http://aviation.govt.nz/airspace-and-aerodromes/new-southern-sky/ads-b/

Avionics News May 2020

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