Avionics News July 2020 - 55

standard order? You didn't because it's not called out in 14
CFR § 91.205.
For the record, paragraph (d) of 91.205 speaks directly to
IFR operations:
(d) Instrument flight rules. For IFR flight, the following
instruments and equipment are required:
(1)	 Instruments and equipment specified in
paragraph (b) of this section, and, for night flight,
instruments and equipment specified in paragraph (c) of
this section.
(2)	 Two-way radio communication and navigation
equipment suitable for the route to be flown.
(3)	 Gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator, except on the
following aircraft:
(i) Airplanes with a third attitude instrument system
usable through flight attitudes of 360 degrees of pitch
and roll and installed in accordance with the instrument
requirements prescribed in §121.305(j) of this chapter;
and
(ii) Rotorcraft with a third attitude instrument system
usable through flight attitudes of ±80 degrees of
pitch and ±120 degrees of roll and installed in
accordance with §29.1303(g) of this chapter.
(4)	 Slip-skid indicator.
(5)	 Sensitive altimeter adjustable for
barometric pressure.
(6)	 A clock displaying hours, minutes, and
seconds with a sweep-second pointer or digital
presentation.
(7)	 Generator or alternator of adequate capacity.
(8)	 Gyroscopic pitch and bank indicator also
called an artificial horizon or attitude indicator.
(9)	 Gyroscopic direction indicator (directional
gyro or equivalent).
And there's more, covering different categories of
aircraft. But this covers the kind of flying most EAB
operators will be making.
So, again, the question: Did you see the label "TSO"
anywhere in there? Of course not. It's not in the section
highlighted.
But in § 91.207, the FAA addresses emergency locator
transmitters, another requirement. And § 91.215 brings
us another requirement not mentioned in § 91.205 - for a
transponder.
91.215 (a) All airspace: U.S.-registered civil aircraft.
For operations not conducted under Part 121 or 135 of this
chapter, ATC transponder equipment installed must meet
the performance and environmental requirements of any
class of TSO-C74b (Mode A) or any class of TSO-C74c
(Mode A with altitude reporting capability) as appropriate,
or the appropriate class of TSO-C112 (Mode S).

And then there's the altitude-reporting requirement in
91.217(c), stating that the altimeters and digitizers must meet
the standards of TSO-C10b and TSO-C88, respectively.
TSO-C10b applies to the sensitive altimeter itself, and TSOC88 applies to the automatic altitude reporting equipment. As
with the transponder requirement, the equipment is required
to meet the standards of the applicable TSOs - but not to be
produced under a TSO authorization.
Equipping EAB for IFR
So how does one equip an EAB for not-for-hire flight in
instrument meteorological conditions?
The U.S. Global Positioning System navigators offer a
prime example of how non-TSO equipment can be used
where a TSO seems to be required.
For IFR operations and to comply with ADS-B
Out requirements, the GPS equipment must meet the
performance requirements of the applicable TSO, TSO
C129 for WAAS GPS.
Linger here for a moment. For IFR flight and for
use with an ADS-B Out solution, there is no specific
requirement for the equipment to be built under a TSO
authorization - only that the WAAS GPS meet the
performance standards of TSO C129.
That's why systems from some avionics makers can be
used without being manufactured under a TSO.
There's a caveat, however. If the equipment is not
built under a TSO authorization, it is the responsibility
of the owner or operator to verify and document that the
equipment performs within the required performance
specifications. It is also the owner or operator's
responsibility to document the necessary flight-test data
showing that the installation performs within the required
accuracy parameters.
Meeting this requirement is likely beyond the skills and
abilities of even advanced builders of homebuilt aircraft. That
throws the chore back to the manufacturer of the specific
avionics in question - and, fortunately, makers of avionics
for the EAB market document their units' compliance and
performance for builders' use in documenting their panel's
compliance with the relevant regulations.
And the FAA offers guidance on winning approval of
the installation of GPS equipment in individual aircraft,
including EAB aircraft.
AC 20-138A
The guidance on winning approval of a GPS
installation comes in the form of an FAA advisory
circular titled "Airworthiness Approval of Global
Continued on following page
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Avionics News July 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Avionics News July 2020

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