2016 Glossary - 1
bscess (Latin: abscessus) n: an abscess is an
immunologically contained and controlled
lesion that is an accumulation of pus (neutrophils) in a pocket found in tissue due to
inflammation induced by either (1) a localized infection caused by bacteria or parasites or (2) foreign
materials lodged in the tissue. It is a defensive mechanism to prevent the dissemination of the infection
to other parts of the body.
absorbed radiation dose n: (also known as total ionizing dose, TID) the quantity of ionizing radiation
(measured in the joules [unit of energy] per kilogram
or gray [GY] units) that a patient absorbs during a
diagnostic or therapeutic radiation. The absorbed
dose is dependent upon (1) the incident radiation
and (2) the absorbing material (ie, an X-ray beam
may deposit 4 times the radiation dose in bone than
that deposited in air, or none may be deposited in a
abutment n: the component that interfaces with the
implant fixture (implant body) and the prosthetic
entity. It may be constructed to accept screw- or cement-retained prosthetics and be made of titanium,
alloyed metals, ceramic, zirconia; be custom made;
or be uniformly produced by manufacturers. The
abutment may have 1 or multiple pieces and can be
straight or angled. Related: pier abutment: an abutment positioned between adjacent abutments.
abutment analog n: a replica of the dental implant
abutment that is used when making an impression
for laboratory fabrication of the definitive implant
abutment. The implant abutment may be made of
brass, aluminum, steel, or plastic.
abutment driver dental implant n: an instrument
used to secure or remove the abutment screw that
fastens the implant abutment to the implant fixture.
abutment screw, dental implant n: a component that
fastens the implant abutment to the implant fixture
accretion n: an accumulation of plaque, calculus, or
material alba on teeth or dental implants.
acquired centric occlusal position, relation n: a habitual position of the jaws that has come about by
parafunction, habit, or adverse prosthetic wear. The
teeth may or may not be in maximum intercuspation.
acrylic resin n: a thermoplastic polymer of acrylic acid
or congeners (acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, or acrylonitrile).
acrylic resin veneer n: a thin covering (lamination)
made of a polymer of acrylic acid for the facial or
buccal surfaces of a tooth or prosthesis that enhances functional or cosmetic appearance.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans n: a periodontal, peri-implant pathogenic bacterial species
found in plaque that is subgingival or at the margin of the tooth or prosthesis. It is a gram-negative,
nonmotile, rod-shaped facultative anaerobe that is
often associated with aggressive periodontal diseases.
Actinomyces israelii n: an opportunistic pathogenic bacterial species that is characterized as a non-
spore-forming anaerobic bacillus, gram-positive,
nonmotile, and non-acid fast.
Actinomyces viscosus n: a pathogenic bacterial species that is catalase-positive, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, nonmotile, filamentous, and pleomorphic. It is an indigenous microflora that colonizes
the mouth of humans and is often affiliated with gingivitis, periodontitis, and root caries.
actinomycosis n: a subacute to chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces. A common form is cervicofacial (ie, lumpy jaw).
active eruption n: see under eruption, dental.
acute abscess n: a fast-forming, localized collection of
pus surrounded by inflamed tissue.
acyclovir n: a synthetic purine nucleoside analog used
for treating viral infections induced by herpes simplex, and varicella zoster.
adaptation syndrome n: the body's short- and longterm response to accommodate stress.
adenitis n: a lymph node that is inflamed.
adenopathy n: swelling of a lymph node.
adhesion n: physical process of attachment of a substance to the surface of another substance usually
due to a molecular attraction that exists between