2016 Glossary - 24

dysmasesis n: difficulty in chewing (mastication).
dysostosis n: imperfect ossification resulting in abnormal bone development.
dysphagia n: difficulty in or lack of complete swallowing, which slows the movement of food from the
mouth into the stomach.
dysphonia n: disorder of the voice caused by the inability to make voice sounds through the vocal cords
resulting in hoarseness or difficulty in speaking.
dysplasia n: the abnormal development of cells, tissue,
or organs. In dentistry, various dysplasias have been
observed that are associated with abnormal dentin
(dentinal dysplasia), abnormal ectoderm (ectodermal dysplasia), or abnormal periapical bone (periapical cemental dysplasia) affecting root formation
(dentinal d); tooth, sweat gland, and nose bridge development (ectodermal d); and the periapical bone
of vital teeth causing the center to become opaque
due to a cementoma or odonogenic tumor.
dystonia n: a neurologic disorder resulting in sustained
muscle contraction that affects movement causing
twisting and repetitive motions of the tongue, jaw,
eyes, neck, and sometimes the entire body.
dystrophy, periodontal n: degeneration of the periodontium caused by changes in bone mechanics,
circulation, and so on that results in abnormal physiological function.

E

arly-onset periodontitis n: see under periodontitis.
ecchymosis n: the extravasation and collection of blood into the subcutaneous tissues,
which appears as a yellow to bluish mark on the mucous membrane or skin. Injury to or fragility of the
underlying blood vessels may be the cause.
ectopic adj: occurring in an abnormal position, away
from the normal location, in an unusual manner, or
situated in an unusual place or form.
ectopic eruption n: eruption of a tooth outside the
expected or usual location or in displaced position.
edema n: a condition of abnormally large fluid volume
or abnormal swelling subsequent to the collection of
fluid in a tissue or between the body's cells.

24

edentulate v: the process by which all teeth are removed.
edentulism adj: to be edentulous; to be without natural teeth.
edentulous adj: not having teeth, devoid of teeth.
elastomeric impression material n: a polymer that
has weak intermolecular forces with characteristics
of viscosity and elasticity; compared with other materials it has a low Young's modulus and high failure strain. The term originates from elastic polymer,
which is also known as rubber.
electrode n: (1) a solid electric conductor that allows for
current to enter or leave a medium or electrolytic cell;
(2) a component of an X-ray tube that electrons are attracted to or released from. The anode is the positive
electrode and the cathode is the negative electrode.
electromyographic biofeedback n: a process using
instruments to help patients learn how to control
tension in muscles that are normally under automatic control.
electromyography n: the graphic display and record
of the electrical potential of muscle(s).
electron accelerator n: an instrument designed to increase the energy level of electrons in radiation therapeutics.
electron beam therapy n: the use of high-energy
electrons for therapy, such as with a betatron.
electroplate v: the process of coating an object's surface with a thin layer of metal by the process of electrolysis.
electropolish v: removing a layer of metal by electrolysis, thus producing a bright surface on the material.
electrosurgery n: using a metal instrument to apply
high-frequency electrical current at localized sites to
produce tissue division.
elevator muscle n: one of the contracting muscles that
raises or closes the lower jaw.
embolus n: a foreign material, such as a blood clot or
air, that migrates in the bloodstream leading to an
obstruction of a blood vessel.
embouchure n: the manner in which people position
and use their mouth (teeth, lips, and tongue) when
playing a wind instrument.



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