2016 Glossary - 32

the mandibular motion; also called a Class IV articulator.
functional articulation n: occlusal contact points on
the maxillary and mandibular teeth during the process of chewing.
functional dislocation n: displacement of the temporomandibular joint's articular disk during function
due to derangement of the disc-condyle complex.
functional jaw orthopedics n: application of muscle
forces to influence changes in jaw position and tooth
alignment by removable appliances.
functional occlusal harmony n: the highest degree of
masticatory efficiency in all ranges of motion without functional strain or trauma.
functional occlusal splint n: any device that works to
control the plane and range of mandibular movement.
functional occlusion n: position of the working contacts of the maxillary and mandibular teeth during
chewing.
functional record n: the recording of the envelope of
motion of the mandible for measurement or duplication in a prosthetic device.
functionally generated path n: the path of motion
dictated and constrained by the morphology and
position of the teeth, joint anatomy, and muscles of
mastication.
fungiform papilla n: see under papilla.
furcation n: the area of root divergence in a multirooted tooth.
fusiform adj: a term to describe the morphology of
certain types of bacteria, indicating a spindle or cigar
shape; reflective in the genus Fusobacterium.

G

alvanic stimulation n: excitation of muscle
fibers by applying mild electrical current.
galvanism n: induction of an electrical
current between 2 materials with different
electronegativities. This can produce nerve or muscle stimulations. (2) accelerated oxidization of a metal from an electrical interaction with a more noble
metal in a corrosive electrolyte. The consequential

32

current flow can create nerve stimulation, an electric
shock-like experience, or a disagreeable taste.
genial adj: relating to the chin.
genial tubercles n: bony projections at the midline on
the lower lingual surface of the mandible to which
the genioglossus muscle attaches above and the
geniohyoid muscle below.
genioplasty n: cosmetic surgery to improve the appearance of the chin (mandibular symphysis).
geographic tongue (benign migratory glossitis) n: a
chronic condition characterized by desquamation
of the superficial epithelium of the dorsum of the
tongue, which migrates continuously.
germicide n: a disinfectant that kills germs, especially
pathogenic microorganisms.
germination n: two teeth that are joined and have developed from the same tooth bud.
gingiva n: the connective tissue that surrounds the
teeth, covers the jaws, and is covered by epithelium.
gingival adj: relating to the gingiva. See also gingival
crevice.
gingival abscess n: a pus-producing infection of the
gingiva where relative localization has occurred.
gingival crevice n: the envelope formed between the
gingival cuff and the tooth or implant, coronal to its
epithelial attachment. Syn: gingival sulcus, periodontal pocket
gingival curettage n: see under curettage.
gingival denture contour n: portions of a prosthesis
that mimic the soft tissue surrounding a tooth or
teeth. Syn: pink porcelain, pink acrylic.
gingival disease n: recognizable signs and symptoms
of various disease states that are localized to the gingiva; also called gum disease or periodontal disease.
Gingival disease can be caused by fungal, bacterial,
or viral infections that arise from the dental plaque or
oral cavity; diseases that affect the immune system
(eg, AIDS, cancer); or diseases/conditions that can
predispose one to bacterial growth in the gingiva,
such as diabetes, menopause, use of drug therapies
(eg, glucocorticoids, Dilantin, Procardia), or lifestyle
(eg, smoking, poor oral hygiene habits). Common
symptoms include swollen gingiva that bleed easily



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