2016 Glossary - 33

and may be accompanied by white, red, or ulcerative
gingival lesions. Over time, the chronic infection that
occurs between the teeth and gingiva can cause gingival displacement and bone deterioration resulting
in loss of teeth.
gingival displacement n: the movement or retraction
of the marginal gingiva, the gingiva located at the
buccal, labial, lingual, and palatal areas of the teeth,
away from a tooth.
gingival embrasure n: area of the gingiva, usually
having a V shape in the maxilla and an inverted V
shape in the mandible, that fills the space between
adjacent teeth that lies cervical to the interproximal
contact area.
gingival porcelain n: porcelains (usually pink in color)
used to blend the cervical portions of the gingival
margins between the prosthetic and the oral cavity.
gingival retraction n: see gingival displacement.
gingivitis n: gingival inflammation.
gingivoplasty n: A resective gingival surgical procedure performed to reshape and recontour of the
gingiva.
gingivosis n: former nomenclature for desquamative
gingivitis.
gingivostomatitis n: Inflammatory process involving
the gingiva and mucosa. The term is a compound
word where the second term, "stomatitis," is derived
from the Greek word stoma, which means mouth.
The term encompasses any intraoral inflammatory
process located within the oral cavity.
* herpetic gingivostomatitis: a herpes simplex
viral infection of the oral soft tissues indicated by
redness, development of many vesicles, tender ulcerations, fever, and lymphadenopathy.
ginglymoarthrodial joint n: a joint that involves hinging and gliding movement during function; it has a
ginglymus and arthrodial form.
ginglymus joint n: joint involving hinging movements
during function.
glenoid fossa n: the concavity in the temporal bone
at the root of the zygomatic arch that receives the
mandibular condyle.
glossalgia n: pain in the tongue.

glossectomy n: partial or total resection of the tongue.
glossodynia n: painful or burning sensation in the
tongue.
glossoplasty n: plastic or altering surgery of the
tongue.
glucose tolerance test n: a laboratory test that denotes a patient's ability to regulate blood sugar level
after carbohydrate intake. One of the best laboratory tests (in terms of reliability) for detecting diabetes
mellitus.
glycosaminoglycan n: a polysaccharide that is important in tissue repair, hydration, and joint health. Also
known as mucopolysaccharide.
gnathic adj: relating to the anatomy or function of the
maxilla or mandible.
gnathion n: a reference point commonly used in orthodontic evaluation (especially radiographically)
of the skull, which designates the most inferior and
outward point of the bony chin as measured at the
midsagittal plane.
gnathodynamometer n: an instrument used to measure maximal bite force and masticatory efficiency.
Also known as occlusometer.
gnathology n: the science of relating tooth position,
anatomy, and function to the exact movements of
the temporomandibular joints bilaterally, in an attempt to define ideal masticatory function and stability. Also known as neuromuscular dentistry.
Golden Proportion n: a mathematical progression of
numeric expressions thought to have ideal esthetic
value. It describes the ideal dimensions and visual relationships of the human dentition, as well as human
facial dimensions. Dr Eddy Levin, of London, England, found that by applying the Golden Proportion
to the 8 maxillary anterior teeth (1st bicuspid to 1st
bicuspid) ideal esthetics could be achieved. The ratio
is 1.618 to 1. It has been accepted that the Golden
Proportion exists in natural dentitions as observed
from the labial surfaces, the ratio of the widths of
cuspids to lateral incisors as well as central incisors
to lateral incisors. The 4 front teeth, from central incisor to 1st bicuspids are the most significant part of
the smile and are in the Golden Proportion to each
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