2016 Glossary - 41

chemicals, or infection that may result in a loss of
normal function.
ligature n: a thread, wire, fillet, suture (eg, gut, nylon,
silk) or the like, tied tightly around such structures as
the blood vessel or pedicle of a tumor for the purpose of constricting it.
* orthodontic ligature: a wire or other material used to secure an orthodontic attachment or
tooth to an archwire.
lightness n: the perception by which objects are distinguished as white or gray and light or dark; equivalent to shading in grays, in the Munsell Color Order
System. Lightness (other name brightness) is 1 dimension of the 3 achromatic dimensions (the others
being hue and saturation) describing the 3-dimensional nature of color.
linear gingival erythema n: a distinct erythematous
linear band limited to the free gingiva; commonly a
manifestation of immunosuppression that does not
predictably respond to plaque removal.
linear occlusion n: an occlusal arrangement of artificial
teeth developed to enhance stability for complete
denture prosthetics. This arrangement is described
as a mandibular flat plane or monoplane arrangement, opposed by a line or bladed arrangement of
the maxillary teeth with no anterior interferences in
protrusive or lateral movements.
line of occlusion n: a line passing through the cusp tips
of adjacent teeth on one side of the arch forming a
plane when viewed horizontally. See also occlusal
plane.
lingual adj: related to the tongue; adjacent to or toward the tongue.
lingual flange n: the portion of a mandibular denture
that occupies the space between the tongue and residual alveolar ridge.
lingual inclination n: a lingual deviation of a tooth or
teeth from the vertical plane
lingualized occlusion n: an occlusal relationship commonly used in full denture prostheses characterized
by maxillary palatal cusp contact against the central fossa of the mandibular teeth, where the buccal
cusps of the mandibular teeth do not contact the op-

posing maxillary teeth and the position of the mandibular teeth is lingual to the alveolar ridge.
linguocclusion n: an occlusal relationship where the
teeth are located in a lingual position to their normal
location.
linguoversion n: deviation of a tooth lingual in direction to the regular arch alignment.
lip switch operation n: a procedure in which tissue obtained from one lip is transferred to the other lip of
the same patient. Also used to describe a modified
vestibuloplasty procedure.
loading dose n: the larger dose given at the initiation
of treatment in order to quickly achieve the desired
blood or tissue final concentration.
local contributing factor n: an event occurring locally
that can influence the manner in which a disease or
condition is manifested.
long axis n: an imaginary line passing longitudinally
through the center of a body.
low lip line n: (1) the lowest position of the inferior
border of the resting upper lip; (2) when the patient
voluntarily smiles or retracts the lips, it the lowest position of the superior border of the lower lip.
Lucia jig n: eponym (Victor O. Lucia) for an anterior
muscle programming device used to obtain an accurate dental arch centric relationship by allowing the
condyles to seat in their most superior position.
luminance n: the intensity of light emitted from a surface per unit area.
lute v: to attach 2 surfaces by means of a cement or
other adhesive material.

M

acule n: a completely flat circumscribed
change in the color of skin that can only
be appreciated by visual inspection and
not by touch. It is neither raised nor depressed, does not show a change in the skin's texture
or thickness, and is usually <10 mm in diameter.
major aphtha n: a type of recurrent apthous stomatitis that occurs in 10% to 15% of patients with the
condition; usually manifested by the appearance of 1
or 2 large, painful ulcerations on movable, nonkeratinized oral mucosa, lasting for up to 6 weeks.
JOI Glossary

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