2016 Glossary - 50

to reshape bone form to achieve a better or more
natural contour.
ostectomy n: removal of bone or a portion of bone,
usually with rotary instrumentation using a diamond
or steel bur to reshape or recontour bone to conform
to better bone health by itself or around the neck of
a tooth.
osteitis n: inflammation of bone that may cause resorption or deformation of bone conducive to bone
health. May result in higher density of bone or destruction of bone in the same area depending on the
pH of the area when osteitis is causing destruction.
osteoarthritis n: usually associated with chronic degeneration of cartilage, fibrous connective tissue,
and/or bone tissue associated with joint components; usually associated with pain or limited movement of the associated joint and capsule surround
the joint.
osteoblast n: a specialized terminally differentiated cell
developed from the mesenchymal stem cell lineage.
They have single nuclei and are responsible for synthesizing dense cross-linked collagen and other specialized proteins, such as osteocalcin and osteopontin. When organized into groups of connected cells,
they also produce a calcium- and phosphate-based
mineral that is deposited, in a highly synchronized
manner, into the organic matrix of bone. Individual
osteoblasts cannot generate bone. The combination
of connected osteoblasts and the produced bone is
called an osteon.
osteoclast n: a large multinucleated cell that is derived
from macrophages. Osteoclasts release cathepsin K,
which breaks down the proximal bone mineral matrix, thereby allowing the release of bone morphogenetic proteins that induce osteoblasts to deposit
new bone mineral matrix.
osteocyte n: a once-functional osteoblast that has
become embedded within the bone mineral matrix
and is responsible for controlling bone metabolism.
osteogenesis n: formation or creation of bone.
osteogenic n: any tissue or material that has the ability
to induce growth or repair of bone.
50

osteoid n: the premature organic matrix of bone; bone
that is in the developmental stage but has not undergone calcification.
osteoinduction n: chemicals, procedures, or materials
that have the ability to induce bone formation (osteogenesis) through the recruitment and/or differentiation of osteoblast precursor stem cells and/or recruitment of mature osteoblasts to the area needing
bone growth or repair.
osteomyelitis n: infection of bone that is usually
caused by bacteria. A long-term infection can lead
to bone destruction.
osteoperiosteal n: relating to bone and the periosteum that covers it.
osteoplasty n: removal or reshaping of the alveolar
process with rotary instruments, piezoelectric technology, or hand instruments to accomplish a more
physiologic form without removing alveolar bone
proper.
osteoporosis n: skeleton pathology distinguished by
decreased normal bone mass and mineralized bone
density; it is seen most commonly in the elderly.
osteoradionecrosis n: the death of most or all of the
bone cells due to irradiation.
osteotome n: a beveled chisel for use in cutting or preparing bone.
osteotomy n: the intended or desired cutting of a
bone; often used to describe the tasks of smoothing,
leveling, realigning, or altering external contours of
the bone.
overdenture n: a nonfixed dental prosthesis that sets
upon and/or is retained in position by 1 or more
teeth and/or dental implants; also known as an overlay denture, overlay prosthesis, or superimposed
prosthesis.

P

alatal incompetence n: the muscular inability of the soft palate to adequately seal the
port between the nasopharynx and the oropharynx during speech and swallowing. Failure to seal this port results in unintelligible speech
and nasopharyngeal regurgitation of food and liquids. Conditions that cause palatal incompetence



2016 Glossary

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