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periodontal destruction, phagocyte abnormalities, and increased levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and possibly Porphyromonas
gingivalis. The generalized form of aggressive periodontitis was formerly referred to as generalized
juvenile periodontitis, Aggressive periodontitis
usually affects persons younger than 30 years but
patients may be older. Normally, there is widespread interproximal attachment loss affecting at
least 3 teeth other than first molars and incisors,
and there is a well-defined intermittent nature
regarding the destruction of attachment and alveolar bone. The serum antibody response may
be lacking or insufficient in response to the infecting agents. Aggressive periodontitis localized
form was formerly termed localized juvenile periodontitis. It has many of the common features of
aggressive periodontitis generalized form but the
onset occurs at puberty. Localized first molar/incisor involvement with interproximal attachment
loss has been associated with a first molar and/or
and incisor and not more than 2 other teeth. Differing from agggressive periodontitis generalized
form, the localized form typically demonstrates a
vigorous serum antibody response to infecting
* chronic periodontitis: an infectious disease that
presents with inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth. Progressive attachment
and bone loss are accompanied by pocket formation and/or recession of the gingiva. Chronic periodontitis is the most frequently occurring form
of periodontitis. It is found most often in adults
but can also occur in young patients. Plaque and
calculus accompany chronic periodontitis. The
sequence of attachment loss is typically slow;
however, periods of fast development may occur.
The microbial configuration is not consistent or
* early-onset periodontitis: a previously used
term. See aggressive periodontitis.
* juvenile periodontitis: See aggressive periodontitis.
* necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis: an infection characterized by necrosis of gingival tissues,
periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. These
lesions are often associated with malnutrition,
human immunodeficiency virus infection, and
* prepubertal periodontitis: a term rarely used
to designate the preadolescent existence of periodontitis. These patients are now incorporated
under the chronic periodontitis category or the
periodontitis associated with systemic diseases
* rapidly progressive periodontitis: a previously
used term. See chronic periodontitis and agressive periodontitis.
* recurrent periodontitis: a condition where periodontitis recurs after having been treated successfully. It is an additional adjective to further describe an existing category of periodontitis, such
as recurrent aggressive periodontitis or recurrent
* refractory periodontitis: a disorder where 1
or more treated forms of periodontitis have not
responded to the appropriate treatment. It is an
additional adjective to further describe an existing category of periodontitis, such as refractory
aggressive periodontitis or refractory chronic
periodontium n: the gingiva, alveolar mucosa, cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone tissues
that surround and support the teeth.
periodontology n: the scientific study of periodontal
tissues in health and disease.
periodontometry n: a method for measuring tooth
periodontopathic n: agents that induce and/or initiate
periosteitis n: an inflammatory process involving the
periosteum (pl, periostea) n: the outer membrane
of dense irregular connective tissue that covers all
bones except the joints of long bones. The osteoblasts and osteoclasts in this membrane are responJOI Glossary
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