2016 Glossary - 69

tal implants are frequently made of titanium with the
addition of 6% aluminum and 4% vanadium to increase the tensile strength and resistance to fatigue.
These alloys form a titanium oxide (TiO2) surface layer that interfaces with the bone.
titanium oxide n: a substance that forms on the surface of titanium and is 10 to 100 angstroms thick,
forms almost instantly, and has properties that allow
for resistance to corrosion, thereby reducing the opportunity of chemical breakdown in biological fluids.
tomogram n: a radiograph that demonstrates images
at various depths based on a method of moving the
film during exposure.
tomograph n: an apparatus that is used to create a
tomogram. The machine allows for the movement
of the film in one direction, while the source of radiation moves in an opposite direction to produce
images at a targeted depth within the tissues.
tomography n: a method of acquiring images of a selected plane within a body produced by moving the
radiation source and the film in directions so as to
rotate around the targeted axis blurring all but the
chosen area of study. Also known as body section
radiography.
tongue thrusting n: the infantlike tendency to push
the tongue between the incisors or anterior alveolar
ridges during swallowing, which can lead to malocclusion, such as anterior open bite, altered/abnormal
jaw growth, or abnormal jaw functions.
tonus, muscle n: (1) regarding the skeletal system, it is
the minimal muscle contractions that maintain posture; (2) regarding the vascular system, it helps blood
return to the heart.
tooth arrangement n: the art of placing teeth into
determined ideal positions on a denture base so as
to achieve the desired results related to esthetic and
functional objectives. Trial placements are frequently done allowing for further movement to enhance
the initial results.
toothbrush trauma n: toothbrush-induced damage
to teeth or gingiva.

tooth color selection n: to choose an appropriate
shade of a tooth or teeth so as to harmoniously
match the appropriate needs of a patient.
tooth extrusion n: the tendency of a tooth to continue
the state of eruption. It can be excessive when the
forces that naturally limit eruption are not present.
Also known as overeruption.
tooth form n: the totality of various physical contours
that allow for differentiation of teeth to establish
their esthetic and functional value.
tooth preparation n: shaping a tooth to accept a restoration; this may involve the removal of decayed
and/or healthy enamel, dentin, and/or cementum.
tooth selection n: choosing the size, color, and shape
of a tooth or teeth for a prosthesis.
tooth-size discrepancy n: teeth that are not within
normal size parameters compared with the rest of
the arch or opposing arch.
tooth supported adj: a prosthetic device that is completely supported by adjacent teeth.
tooth-supported base n: the base of a prosthetic device that is completely supported by adjacent teeth.
tooth-supported denture n: See overdenture.
topical n: surface application.
topography n: surface characteristic.
torque n: measurement or application of a force to rotate an object around an axis.
torus (pl, tori) n: rounded protruding bony projection
found at the maxillary midline of the hard palate or
on the mandible's lingual surface in the premolar/
molar region. It is often bilateral.
toughness n: the ability of a material to resist fracture
when stressed.
toxicity n: the degree to which a substance can damage an organism. The reaction can be localized or
systemic and the response level depends on the
toxin's dose, rate of release, route of administration,
duration of exposure, and specific characteristics.
toxin n: a poisonous substance produced by an organism or within living cells.
trabecula n: interconnected bony spicules in cancellous bone
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