Pilot's Guide to Avionics 2017-2018 - 44

How ADS-B
benefits pilots

IS YOUR ADS-B EQUIPMENT WORKING CORRECTLY
Continued from page 43

Many aircraft owners contemplating an
ADS-B Out equipment installation to comply
with the 2020 mandate may wonder what's in
it for them.
"The positioning data provided by ADS-B is
more precise and timely than radar, and there is
no doubt that this increases safety," said James
Marks, who leads the FAA's ADS-B Focus Team.
For example, the accuracy of radar is affected by the distance and atmospheric conditions
between the aircraft and the radar site. At the
outer limits of radar's range, the accuracy of
radar positioning can be skewed by more than
1,000 feet. Radar positioning depends on the
sweep rate for each site, which can be between
four to six seconds in terminal areas. This isn't
the case with ADS-B because the avionics on
board the aircraft determine its precise location using GPS, and report its position once a
second to a network of more than 600 ground
radio stations that feed air traffic control facilities across the country.
ADS-B also provides coverage in some areas
where there is no radar capability, such as
mountain valleys and over the Gulf of Mexico
beyond the reach of shore-based radar. When
controllers can track aircraft with ADS-B, they
can provide the same services as when an aircraft is in radar contact.
Aircraft owners and pilots who opt for
optional and enhanced ADS-B In equipage will
enjoy the additional benefits of subscriptionfree traffic and weather information displayed
with TIS-B and FIS-B. But to receive TIS-B traffic
information in the cockpit, aircraft must properly transmit ADS-B Out data. That's because
the FAA ground system needs the aircraft's
ADS-B reported position to determine what relevant traffic information should be broadcast
to it. q

mandate. By adding the optional ADS-B In
capability, they can receive Traffic Information
Service-Broadcast, which shows air traffic near
their aircraft. ADS-B In equipment also enables
them to receive position reports directly from
ADS-B Out aircraft flying nearby. Aircraft
equipped with Universal Access Transceiver
operating on 978 MHz also have access to
graphical weather displays in the cockpit as
well as text-based advisories, including Notices
to Airmen and significant weather activity
provided by the Flight Information Service-
Broadcast. Aircraft equipped with ADS-B
enabled Mode S Transponders operating on
1090 MHz do not receive FIS-B information, but
they do receive TIS-B traffic information.
Repair shop best practices
Some repair shops perform functional
checks on the ground of newly installed ADS-B
avionics using test equipment that can show
if the electronics are properly configured and
transmitting the correct data. This includes the
aircraft's FAA-assigned 24-bit International
Civil Aviation Organization address (Mode S
address), emitter category, flight identification
code and more.
While ground test equipment can catch many
potential issues, it might not detect transmitting
errors that can occur during flight, which is
another good reason to regularly use the FAA's
PAPR service to validate your ADS-B avionics'
performance.
Repair shop technicians must be careful
during ADS-B installations (which are often
done at the same time as an aircraft's 24-month
altimeter system and altitude reporting tests)
and ground tests to properly shield transponder
antennas. Improper testing can create false
targets on the traffic displays of air traffic

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pilot's Guide to Avionics 2017-2018

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http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/pilotsguide/18-19
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