AEA Pilot's Guide 2018-2019 - 44

KEEPING THE JUICE FLOWING
Continued from page 43

failed engine-driven alternator or generator.
Power to recharge the battery and to run radios
and instruments is routed to a main-electricalsystem bus and through protective breakers or fuses
to the various devices powered by the electrical
system.
Lose generating power and the load shifts
automatically to the main-ship battery. In the era
with split analog flight-instrument power, the mainship battery provides power sufficient to run a radio,
a navigator and transponder, and, typically, the turn
coordinator.
As noted before, the flow of air or air pressure
spins the two remaining gyro flight instruments, the
AI and the DG, also known as a gyro compass.
Electrical power became a more-critical issue
in light aircraft when EFIS cockpits with electronic
displays began to displace analog panels.
Go to glass from spinning-mass gyro instruments
and the FAA wants aircraft to employ an alternative:
either an alternative, stand-alone instrument with its
own independent power source or a second source
of power to keep the EFIS components functioning
after losing main-ship power.
In place of spinning-mass gyroscopes and
hollow-tube analog air-data gauges, these panels
employ devices known as MEMS, or micro-electromechanical systems - basically, a miniaturized
mechanical and electro-mechanical sensor capable
of sensing motion and pressure.
MEMS provide the air- and attitude-data sensing
found in modern primary flight displays via the
AHRS, or attitude and heading reference system.
By orienting MEMS sensors differently, the AHRS
senses movement in three axes, providing attitude
information on roll, pitch and yaw.
ADAHARS, or air data and attitude heading
reference system, add air-data measurements to the
mix to display airspeed, altitude, and rate of climb or
descent in addition to the attitude indications.
The sensors and computer chips convert sensor
output into information displayed in screens.
And all components in this process, from MEMS

to PFD and multifunction displays all require
electricity - hence the increased emphasis on
electrical-power continuity.
The FAA published two advisory circulars that
cover the subject: AC 23.1311-lC Installation
of Electronic Display in Part 23 Airplanes; and
AC 23-17C, Systems and Equipment Guide for
Certification of Part 23 Airplanes and Airships.
The standards per the FAA
Just as options exist to retrofit existing aircraft with
glass and digital components in place of their analog
avionics stacks, options exist to enhance electrical
systems and improve standby capabilities. And what
we discuss here centers on what's necessary for Part
91 operations of Part 23 aircraft. Part 23 aircraft used
in Part 135 charter ops face a higher bar.
Part 23, ยง 23.1353(h) requires that: "In the event
of a complete loss of the primary electrical powergenerating system, the battery must be capable of
providing at least 30 minutes of electrical power to
those loads that are essential to a continued safe
flight and landing. The 30-minute time period includes
the time needed for the pilots to recognize the loss of
generated power and take appropriate load-shedding
action."
Part 135 operations flown in Part 23 aircraft
requires that single-engine aircraft have:
1. Two independent electrical power-generating
sources, with each able to supply all probable
combinations of continuous in-flight electrical
loads for required instruments and equipment; or
2. In addition to the primary electrical powergenerating source, a standby battery or
an alternate source of electric power that
is capable of supplying 150 percent of the
electrical loads of all required instruments
and equipment necessary for safe emergency
operation of the aircraft for at least one hour.
For the pilot operating under Part 91, though,
the minimum is seldom enough. And that battery
capable of "providing at least 30 minutes of
electrical power to those loads that are essential to
a continued safe flight and landing" in an analogpaneled aircraft probably won't make that 30
minutes driving the higher electrical demand of an

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